By J. V. Ward, Boris C. Kondratieff, R. E. Zuellig
This can be a accomplished source at the biology, ecology, and systematics of aquatic bugs of Rocky Mountain streams. This richly illustrated and up to date quantity comprises descriptions of mountain flow ecosystems and habitats; simplified identity keys to the bugs of Colorado Mountain streams; transparent, well-labelled drawings; and an intensive bibliography. Species' distributions through drainage basin are supplied for mayflies, stoneflies and caddisflies, the 3 orders for which such facts can be found.
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Additional resources for An illustrated guide to the mountain stream insects of Colorado
The indicator organism concept and community structure indices are among the most useful and commonly applied biotic measures of stream water quality. Both of these approaches are applicable to field collections of aquatic insects. Page 33 The Indicator Organism Concept Aquatic insects collectively exhibit a wide range of tolerance to environmental conditions. Species or taxonomic groups not occurring under severe ecological conditions are said to be intolerant. Those with a wide range of tolerance, but unable to tolerate severe ecological conditions, are said to be facultative.
Ward, B. C. Kondratieff. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ) 1. Aquatic insects Colorado. 2. Aquatic insectsColoradoClassification. 3. Alpine faunaColorado. I. Kondratieff, B. C. ) II. Title. 709788dc 2092-17076 CIP The paper used in this publication meets the minimum requirements of the American National Standard for Information SciencesPermanence of Paper for Printed Library Materials. 48-1984 Page v Contents Preface ix Introduction 1 The Natural Setting 3 Mountain Stream Ecosystems 5 Some Basic Principles 5 Stream Order Analysis 5 Longitudinal Profiles 6 Channel Patterns 7 Riffles and Pools 7 Major Lotic Habitat Types 8 Special Lotic Habitats 13 Controlling Factors 15 Temperature 15 Discharge and Current 17 Substrate and Suspended Matter 18 Chemical Conditions 19 Total Dissolved Solids 20 Dissolved Gases 20 Nutrient Salts 20 Aquatic and Riparian Vegetation 21 Insects of Aquatic Habitats 24 Life Histories 24 Food and Feeding 26 Adaptations to Running Waters 27 Impacts of Humans On Mountain Streams 32 Aquatic Insects and Water Quality 32 The Indicator Organism Concept 33 Community Structure 34 Stream Regulation 36 Organic Pollution 38 Page vi Mining 39 Other Watershed Disturbances 40 Insects of Colorado Mountain Streams 42 Key to Orders 44 Plecoptera (stoneflies) 45 Key to Families 50 Pteronarcyidae 53 Taeniopterygidae 53 Nemouridae 54 Capniidae 55 Leuctridae 55 Perlidae 55 Perlodidae 56 Chloroperlidae 57 Ephemeroptera (mayflies) 72 Key to Families 74 Ephemeridae 75 Polymitarcyidae 76 Isonychiidae 76 Oligoneuriidae 76 Tricorythidae 76 Caenidae 76 Ephemerellidae 77 Heptageniidae 78 Ametropodidae 79 Leptophlebiidae 79 Baetidae 80 Siphlonuridae 81 Trichoptera (Caddisflies) 94 Key to Families 96 Helicopsychidae 97 Lepidostomatidae 98 Brachycentridae 98 Leptoceridae 98 Hydroptilidae 99 Glossosomatidae 100 Rhyacophilidae 101 Limnephilidae 101 Uenoidae 103 Hydropsychidae 103 Page vii Philopotamidae 104 Polycentropodidae 105 Psychomyiidae 105 Coleoptera (Beetles) 117 Key to FamiliesAdults 118 Key to FamiliesLarvae 119 Elmidae 119 Dryopidae 121 Ptilodactylidae 121 Other Families 121 Diptera (True Flies) 126 Key to Families 126 Blephariceridae 128 Deuterophlebiidae 129 Simuliidae 129 Tanyderidae 130 Dixidae 130 Athericidae 130 Ceratopogonidae 130 Stratiomyidae 131 Psychodidae 131 Empididae 131 Syrphidae 132 Muscidae 132 Tipulidae 132 Chironomidae 134 Other Orders 148 Appendix A (Mayfly Distribution) 153 Appendix B (Stonefly Distribution) 157 Appendix C (Caddisfly Distribution) 161 Glossary 167 References 169 Subject Index 183 Taxonomic Index 185 Page ix Preface This guide was written to aid those studying the aquatic insect fauna of Colorado mountain streams.
Four major rivers have their sources in the Colorado Cordillera. The Colorado River flows into the Pacific Ocean (Gulf of California); the Rio Grande, South Platte, and Arkansas rivers drain to the Gulf of Mexico. The topographic diversity and associated gradients in altitude result in five major life zones. These life zones are best exemplified along the easternmost range of mountains in Colorado. In central Colorado timberline occurs at about 11,500 ft. (3,505 m), above which lies the Alpine Zone.
An illustrated guide to the mountain stream insects of Colorado by J. V. Ward, Boris C. Kondratieff, R. E. Zuellig