By Richard S. Katz
Political events and elections are the mainsprings of contemporary democracy. during this vintage quantity, Richard S. Katz explores the matter of the way a given electoral method impacts the function of political events and how within which celebration individuals are elected. He develops and assessments a idea of the diversities within the unity, ideological habit, and factor orientation of Western parliamentary events at the foundation of the electoral platforms lower than which they compete. a typical within the box of political thought and inspiration, The idea of events and the Electoral System contributes to a greater figuring out of parliamentary occasion buildings and demonstrates the large software of the rationalistic process for explaining habit derived from the self-interest of political actors.
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Additional resources for A Theory of Parties and Electoral Systems
Categoric choice will tend to sharpen interparty conflict, 30 A Theory of Parties and Electoral Systems District Magnitude The third dimension considered by Rae is district magnitude, operationaiized as the average number of deputies returned per district. In fact, this is only one aspect of district size. Districts also vary tremendously with regard to the number of voters within them. 23 It is obviously a far different problem to campaign to 2,500 voters than it is to campaign to 250,000 or to campaign as the only candidate from a party rather than as one of several candidates from the same party (as would be the case in a multimember district).
1, along with their countries' scores on each of the four dimensions of electoral law suggested to be especially significant. 1. Parties and electoral system characteristics Country Parties United States United Kingdom Australia Hew Zealand Canada Ireland Austria France W. Germany Denmark Iceland Sweden Netherlands Luxembourg Republican Democratic Conservative Labour Labour Liberal Country National Labour Progressive- Conservative Oberal New Democratic Social Credit Fianna Fail Fine Gael Labour People's Socialist Freedom Radical MRP Socialist RPF/UNR Communist Christian Democratic Socialist Free Democratic Social Democratic Venstre Conservative Radikale Independence Progressive People's Union Social Democratic Social Democratic Center Liberal Conservative Catholic People's Labor Oberal Antirevolutionary Christian Historical Union Communist Christian Social Socialist Labour Democratic Communist Electoral formula Nature of choice 1950-56 1957-62 1950-56 1957^2 Plur Plur Cat Cat Plur Plur Cat Cat Plur Plur Ord Ord Plur Plur Cat Cat Plur PlttT Cat Cat Plur Plur Ord Ord PR PR Cat Cat PR Plur Cat Cat PR PR Cat Cat PR PR Cat Cat PR PR Cat Cat PR PR Cat Cat PR PR Cat Cat PR PR Ord Oixi * These figures are averages computed over all elections in the relevant subperiod, f Rae apparently counts the four regional districts used for the distribution of remainders as addition; districts, for a total of twenty-nine, Douglas Rae, The Political Consequences of Electoral Laws (Ne Haven: Yale University Press, 1971), p.
Thus, neither of the conditions promoting ideological conflict under PR systems is met under plurality schemes. IE a plurality system, the candidates in any district may be divided with rough accuracy into two categories—ceteris paribus, those that are expected to be successful and those that are expected to be defeated. The farther a candidate lies from the line dividing these two classes, whether above or below, the less likely he is to turn defeat into victory or victory into defeat, and consequently the less interest the candidate and his party need have in the campaign.
A Theory of Parties and Electoral Systems by Richard S. Katz