By J.D. Holloway
I spent 4 months in New Caledonia in 1971 with the article of constructing a quantitative survey of the night-flying macrolepidoptera with light-traps and an overview of the Rhopalocera and microlepidoptera. This fieldwork used to be financed through a central authority Grant-in-Aid for medical Investigations adminis tered through the Royal Society, and by means of a supply from the Godman Fund. I committed yet another 3 weeks to sampling on Norfolk I. , and, with assistance from neighborhood naturalists, Mr. and Mrs. F. JOWETT, was once capable of produce an in depth account of the biogeography and ecology of the moth fauna (HOLLOWAY, 1977). This e-book is an account of the result of the hot Caledonian paintings, including studies of the geology, phytogeography and common zoogeography pre sented as history for the Lepidoptera fauna and its geography. earlier paintings at the macroheterocera, essentially papers by way of VIETTE (1948- 1971), had recorded no longer many greater than 100 species, a truly low overall contemplating the realm of the island relative to that of the Fiji team the place the moths have been being studied through Dr. G. S. ROBINSON whilst the recent Caledonian day trip used to be on the drafting board. The Fijian fauna then promised think of ably to exceed 300 species. obviously many extra species awaited discovery in New Caledonia.
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Additional resources for A Survey of the Lepidoptera, Biogeograhy and Ecology of New Caledonia
The relationship of these vegetation types in New Caledonia to hydrology, relief and the accumulation of organic material in the soils suggests a similar situation to that inferred by MARTIN for Miocene New South Wales, in that the rainforest remnants there today require high precipitation, shelter and fertile soils. The New Zealand flora has also lost a number of taxa during the Tertiary that are still found in New Caledonia, such as the Nothofagus brassii group, and some further taxa are restricted to the extreme north such as Xeronema (Liliaceae) with one species on Three Kings I.
The biogeography of Sulawesi requires much more detailed investigation through new fieldwork; palynological studies particularly may help to unravel its biological history. Study of the Sula Is. and the Sangihe and Talaud groups would also be very valuable. The relationship of New Caledonia to other land masses and the potential access routes for its flora and fauna can be summarised as follows. In the late Cretaceous the previously close association between the New Caledonia/New Zealand land mass and Australia/Antarctica was brought to a close by the opening of the Tasman Sea and the Antarctic south of the Campbell Plateau.
Current uplift commenced on Mare in the Lower Pleistocene and was greater in the south where the chain is closest to the New Hebrides Trench. DUBOIS, LAUNAY & RECY (1975) showed that the differential uplift along the Loyalties chain and on the mainland coast near Yate fitted theoretical predictions concerning bulging of the lithosphere immediately prior to subduction zones. The rate of uplift has not yet been determined. Tertiary climates and sea-level changes The passage of Australia, New Caledonia and New Zealand northwards during the Tertiary brought them ever closer to the equator which, given constant climatic conditions through the Tertiary, should have led to progressively ameliorating climates in each area.
A Survey of the Lepidoptera, Biogeograhy and Ecology of New Caledonia by J.D. Holloway